Producing Christmas trees is big business. Every year, growers in the United States and Canada deliver 30 to 40 million trees to consumers, earning $2 billion in revenue. Growers in Europe produce an additional 110 million trees, earning $1.64 billion. To prepare for future crops, growers also plant up to three times as many trees as they harvest every year. Bringing each crop to market involves years of intensive management.
The critical information needed to manage diseases and disorders of all types of conifer trees is provided in Compendium of Conifer Diseases, Second Edition. Written by 102 experts from 18 countries, this edition presents the modern world of forest pathology.
Forests today grow under increasing stress from an ever-growing human population, newly identified and invasive species of pathogens, and a changing climate. And since publication of the first edition of this compendium in 1997, diagnostic tools have evolved considerably, enabling more precise identification of pathogens, greater understanding of population genetics, and better understanding of evolutionary relationships among various species. All of these factors are addressed in the compendium.
Compendium of Conifer Diseases, Second Edition, describes more than 100 diseases and disorders of conifers in these major sections:
- The Introduction provides background on the botany and diseases of conifers, up-to-date information on climate change and fungal taxonomy, and a comprehensive list of both classic and current publications about forest pathology.
- Part I, Biotic Diseases, is organized by parts of the tree affected and by specific pathogens; five new Phytophthora diseases have been added to this edition. The discussion of each disease describes typical symptoms, identifies the causal organism, outlines the life cycle and epidemiology, recommends strategies for management, and offers sources of additional information.
- Part II, Abiotic Disorders, addresses common and significant abiotic disorders along with physiological conditions that can mimic abiotic injuries. Climatic factors, human influences, and stress-related disorders are covered, and details about species affected and regional distribution are provided in discussions of disorders such as fall needle drop, pole blight, and yellow cedar decline.
- Part III, Diseases of Conifers Grown as Christmas Trees, is new to this edition and provides key information for this specialty crop. Topics include production worldwide, preferred species of conifers, associated diseases and disorders, and effective management practices.
- Part IV, Diseases in the Forest, is organized into sections that highlight the significance of conifers and the diseases that affect them in different regions of the world.
- An appendix, Diseases of Conifer, provides a comprehensive list of conifer diseases organized by genera, along with the causal pathogens and their authorities. A glossary and index are also provided to help readers of all backgrounds understand terminology and find specific information.
More than half the contributors are new to this second edition, and nearly all the articles have been updated or rewritten based on new understandings of diseases. Each article ends with a brief list of references to provide access to the relevant literature. The taxonomic nomenclature has also been updated across the book, and new photos have been added throughout for a total of 280 high-quality illustrations.
In sum, Compendium of Conifer Diseases, Second Edition, presents both the economic and the ecological impacts of conifer diseases. It focuses on the most significant diseases of the most important genera, concentrating on diseases of conifers as forest and Christmas trees. In addition, the book places the importance of conifer pathology in the larger context of world forestry.
This edition will be a trusted resource for a wide range of forestry students and professionals. It provides the foundational knowledge needed by students in forestry, plant sciences, and plant pathology, along with the up-to-date, region-specific taxonomic, diagnostic, and management information essential to the work of practitioners and researchers, including forest managers, extension specialists, and plant disease clinicians.
Botany of Conifers
Diseases of Conifers
Part I. Biotic Diseases
Diseases Caused by Phytophthora spp.
Port Orford Cedar Root Disease
Ramorum Disease of Larch
Mal del Ciprés
Daño Foliar del Pino
Red Needle Cast
Kauri Root and Collar Rot
Phytophthora Root Rot, Stem Canker, and Shoot Blight in Christmas Trees
Diseases with Insect Vectors
Black Stain Root Disease
Southern Pine Decline
Procerum Root Disease
Blue Stain and Bark Beetles
Rhizina Root Disease
Heterobasidion Root and Butt Rot
Armillaria Root Disease
Cedar Laminated Root and Butt Rot
Laminated Root Rot
Red-Brown Butt Rot
Tomentosus Root Rot
Brown Root Rot
Other Root-Rot Fungi
Yellow Brown Top Rot
Brown Crumbly Rot
Other Wound Decays
Red Ring Rot
Rust-Red Stringy Rot
White Pine Blister Rust
Other Soft Pine Stem Rusts
Eastern Gall Rust
Western Gall Rust
Resin Top Disease
Comandra Blister Rust
Stalactiform Blister Rust
Sweetfern Blister Rust
Other Hard Pine Stem Rusts
Pine Twist Rust
Gymnosporangium Stem Rusts
Cankers and Twig Blights
Canker Diseases Caused by Fungi in the Family Nectriaceae
Neonectria Flute Canker
Neonectria Canker on Picea abies Christmas Trees
Neonectria Canker on Abies spp. Christmas Trees
Thyronectria Canker on Abies spp. Christmas Trees
European Larch Canker
Diplodia Shoot Blight and Canker
Delphinella Shoot Blight on Christmas Trees
Other Canker Diseases
Cone and Seed Diseases
Spruce Cone Rusts
Hemlock Cone Rusts
Pine Cone Rusts
Other Seed and Cone Diseases
Needle and Broom Rusts
Needle Blights and Needle Casts
Rhabdocline Needle Cast
Larch Needle Cast
Other Foliage Diseases of Larch
Swiss Needle Cast
Brown Spot Needle Blight
Dothistroma Needle Blight
Dooks Needle Blight
Cyclaneusma Needle Cast
Other Foliage Diseases of Pines
Cedar Leaf Blight
Other Foliage Diseases of Members of Cupressaceae
Herpotrichia Needle Browning
Foliage Diseases of Tsuga spp.
Interior Needle Blight of Abies spp. Christmas Trees
Current-Season Needle Necrosis of Abies spp. Christmas Trees
Other Foliage Diseases of Abies spp.
Foliage Diseases of Spruce
Rhizosphaera Needle Cast in Christmas Trees
Stigmina Needle Cast on Christmas Trees
Spruce Needle Drop or Sudden Needle Drop
Black Mildews and Sooty Molds
Felt Blights and Snow Blights
Mistletoes Dwarf Mistletoes
Other Parasitic Plants
Part II. Abiotic Disorders
Fall Needle Drop (Interior Needle Yellowing)
Edaphic and Aquatic Factors
Part III. Diseases of Conifers Grown as Christmas Trees
Part IV. Diseases in the Forest
Boreal Forest of North America
North American Inland West
Coastal Western North America
Southern United States
East Asian Temperate Forests
Australia and New Zealand
Appendix: Diseases of Confers