This text presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematic and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray micronanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. This fourth edition includes discussions of recent progress, especially in the area of Schottky emission guns, convergent-beam electron diffraction, electron tomography, holography and the high resolution of crystal lattices.
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