Lichens are symbiotic organisms in which fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria form an intimate biological union. This diverse group is found in almost all terrestrial habitats from the tropics to polar regions. Recent developments in the studies of these fascinating organisms have been incorporated in this expanded second edition. The areas covered include lichen genetics and sexual reproduction, stress physiology and symbiosis, and the carbon economy and environmental role of lichens. The text has been updated, covering a wider range of information, covering anatomical, morphological and developmental aspects; the contribution of the unique secondary metabolites produced by lichens to medicine and the pharmaceutical industry; patterns of lichen photosynthesis and respiration in relation to different environmental conditions; the role of lichens in nitrogen fixation and mineral cycling; and the use of lichens as indicators of air pollution. Useful appendix on lichen culturing. This book is ideal for researchers, students as well as being a useful reference book for amateur and professional lichenologists.
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