Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are being released into the environment on a massive scale. By the year 2000 there were 44 million hectares of transgenic crops worldwide. Transgenic micro-organisms, trees and fish are also being released into the environment. Has sufficient attention been paid to the environmental costs? This book explains the principles of ecology that provide a framework for assessing the environmental impacts of GMOs and describes the ecological risks associated with a wide variety of transgenic organisms. The cultivation of transgenic crops, for instance, has caused genetic contamination in organic and other non-transgenic crops. Non-target species, agricultural diversity and the rights of small farmers are also coming under threat. Stephen Nottingham argues that much more precaution is required when releasing GMOs into the environment.
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